Management and Manager
Why study Management?
- Everybody has a vested interest in improving the way organizations are managed.
- A person entering the workplace, after graduation, will either be managed or become a manager.
- Understanding management will also assist a person in managing his or her personal life.
- First-Line Manager
- Supervisors responsible for directing the day-to-day activities of operative employee.
- Middle Manager:
- Individuals at the level of Management between the first-line manager and top-level management.
- Top Manager:
- Individuals who are responsible for making decisions about the direction of the organisation and establishing policies that affect all organisational members.
Skills Needed at Different Management Level:
- Top Level Manager: Conceptual Skills:
- The ability to think and conceptualize about abstract and complex situations concerning the organization
- Monitoring the organization environment. Set strategic goals
- Middle-Level Manager: Human Skills:
- The ability to work well with other people
- Planning and allocating resources.
- Coordinating groups
- Lower-Level Manager: Technical Skills:
- Knowledge and proficiency in a specific field
- Using appropriate tools, techniques. Procedures.
- Instructing, guiding subordinates’ Managing individual performance.
Behaviours related to a manager’s effectiveness:
- Controlling the organization’s environment and its resources.
- Organizing and coordinating.
- Handling information.
- Providing for growth and development.
- Motivating employees and handling conflicts.
- Strategic problem-solving.
Management: The process of getting things done, effectively and efficiently, through and with other people
- Efficiency: Doing the task (thing) correctly; refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs; seeks to minimize resource costs
- Resource Usage – Low Waste – Management Strive for: Low Resources Waste (high efficiency) & Hight Goal Attainment (high effectiveness)
- Effectiveness: Doing the right task (things); goal attainment
- Goal Attainment – High Attainment – Management Strive for: Low Resources Waste (high efficiency) & Hight Goal Attainment (high effectiveness)
Relation between Efficiency, Effectiveness and Performance:
- Low efficiency & Low effectiveness = poor goals, poor use of resources, unwanted product, high price
- Low efficiency & Hight effectiveness = right goal, poor use of resources, right product, hight price
- High efficiency & Low effectiveness = poor goals, good use of resources, unwanted product
- High efficiency & High effectiveness = right goal, right use of resources, right product, right price
- Planning: include defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities.
- Organising: includes determining what tasks to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to who, and where decisions are to be made
- Leading: Includes motivating employees, directing the activities of others, selecting the most effective communication channel, and resolving conflicts
- Controlling: The process of monitoring performance, comparing it with goals and correcting any significance deviations
“These process leads organisation to Achieving the Organization’s stated purpose”
Is the Manager’s Job Universal?
- Level in the Organization
- Do managers manage differently based on where they are in the organization?
- Profit versus Not-for-profit
- Is managing in a commercial enterprise different than managing in a non-commercial organization?
- Size of Organization
- Does the size of an organization affect how managers function in the organization?
- Management Concepts and National Borders
- Is management the same in all economic, cultural, social and political systems?
- Making Decisions and Dealing with Change
- Do managers all make decisions and deal with change in the same ways?
Mintzberg’s Management Roles Approach
- Role Type: Interpersonal
- Specific Role: Figurehead, leader, liaison (Building relationships with organizational members and other constituents)
- Role Type: Informational
- Special Role: Monitor, Disseminator, Spokesperson (Gathering and disseminating information to stakeholders)
- Example: Changes in
- environmental factor
- Inside organisation
- Organisation’s Representative.
- Role Type: Decisional
- Special Role: Entrepreneur, Disturbance, Handler, Resource allocator, Negotiator (Processing information and reaching conclusions)
- Use of resources
- Corrective actions during crisis
- Set budgets
- Agreements with labour unions