Meaning and Definition of Motivation
Motivation is the act of inspiring and encouraging employees to devote maximum effort for achieving objectives. It is a psychological and human aspect. People do something to fulfill their basic and social needs. Motivation is an instrument through which management understands why and how workers interact and work in accordance with organizational requirements. Motivation energizes behavior of subordinates and directs them towards the attainment of common goal. As such motivation is the art of inspiring and encouraging subordinates to do work in effective way so that both organizational and individual objectives can be achieved.
Nature/Features of Motivation
Motivation is a psychological and human aspect. It influences the behavior of subordinates. The main features of motivation are
- psychological process,
- continuous process,
- concentrated total individual,
- complex and on unpredictable,
- pervasive function,
- influences the behaviour,
- positive or negative.
Process of motivation
As process motivation can understand as relationship among needs, drives, and incentives. A brief about motivation process is as follows:
- Needs: Needs are created when there is physiological and psychological imbalance in human beings. Need is the beginning stage of the motivation process. For the fulfillment of unlimited need, people do work.
- Drives: Physiological and psychological drives are action-oriented. Drives or motives are set up to make easy to fulfill needs. They are the major step of motivational process. For example when people have need for food that is converted into hunger drive.
- Incentives: Incentive is the end part of motivational cycle. It helps to fulfill need and reduce drive. When people get incentive it helps to restore physical and psychological balance.
Importance of Motivation
Motivation plays significant role effectiveness of managerial functions. The managerial functions become worthless if motivation is terminated. For better performance of the organization, it is the responsibility of management to motivate the staff. Some points of significance of motivation are
- lead to profitable operation,
- high level of productivity,
- best remedy for resistance to change,
- effective use of human resources,
- satisfaction of employees,
- minimizes disputes and strike,
- basis of coordination,
- stability of work force,
- minimizes supervision cost,
- achievement of organizational goal
Techniques of Motivation
Management may use different techniques to motivate employees. The common techniques of motivation to employees are
- financial incentives,
- delegation of authority,
- job security,
- job enlargement,
- job enrichment,
- job rotation,
- quality of work life
Positive and Negative Motivations
On the basis of approach, motivation may be positive or negative.
Positive motivation is also known as ‘carrot approach. It initiates to offer rewards to persuade employees by providing both monetary and non-monetary benefits.
Negative motivation is also known as ‘stick’ approach. It initiates to hold out some punishment to employees to induce desired behaviour. Negative incentives can also be monetary or non-monetary. As far as possible, management has to use positive motivation for the encouragement to the employees and to develop their efficiency.
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory
Abraham H. Maslow, an eminent American psychologist, saw human needs in the form of a hierarchy, ascending from lowest to the highest. He classified human needs in to five stages. They are as follows:
- Physiological Needs: Physiological needs are also known as basic needs These needs involve food, water, clothes, shelter, rest and other similar basic needs. Such needs might be satisfied by providing appropriate wage and better working environment.
- Safety and security needs: Every human being seeks physical safety and economic security. Economic security means an assurance about the fulfillment of basic needs on a continuous basis. Physical security needs include protection against unexpected events like fire, accident etc. Social security needs include a need for security in old age, fever, and permanent incapability
- Social needs: Human beings are social animals and they want to live in society and want to consume social elements. These social elements include belongingness, friendship, love and affection, social acceptance, social status and prestige ete.
- Esteem needs: These needs are psychological in nature and at higher level in hierarchy. There are two types of esteem needs self esteem and public esteem, In an organization, management can fulfill ego needs by defining position and by developing the system of reward and punishment.
- Self actualization needs: These are the highest level needs in Maslow’s need hierarchy. At this level, individuals seek challenging work assignments that allows for creativity and opportunities for personal growth and advancement. Management can motivate such employees by providing creative and challenging work In fact, such workers expect decision making position.