Filing and Indexing
Concept of Filing
Filing is the systematic and scientific preservation of important documents proper location so that they can be retrieved as and when needed without delay and difficulty. It is an important component of record keeping. Filing is essential to preserve all the information in such a manner that they remain and can be obtained as and when needed.
Purpose of Filing
The basic objective of filing is to keep documents and files safely and systems way. Generally, following are the common objectives of filing:
- collection and classification of documents
- safely preservation of documents
- systematic preservation of documents
- provide evidence
- rapidity in office works
- provide guidance to staffs
- provide information
- maintain goodwill and image
Importance of Filing
Filing is significant in all types of offices where documentation is essential. It is important for the smooth operations of the office. The followings are the common importance of filing
- protection of records
- ready reference
- planning and policymaking
- fulfil statutory requirement
- increase working efficiency
- evidential proof
- aid in control
- following up work
- helpful in dealing with customers
Types of Filing System
- Traditional filing systems are used in small and traditional types of offices having limited numbers of documents and files. These filings consist of baggage, missile, wine cardboard, pigeonhole, box filing etc.
- Modern filing systems are used in modern offices having maximum numbers of documents and files. These files consist of flat file, lever file, vertical files, hanging filing, lateral filing, open self filing and electronic file.
Methods of Filing
In alphabetic filing, files are arranged in drawers or cabinets according to the alphabetic name of person or institution. For alphabetic arrangement, either English or Debnagari scripts can be used. For quick identification, names of persons or institution concerned with files are written on the tab of each file.
In numeric filing, files of persons or institutions are managed in drawer or cabinet according to numerical order like 1, 2, 3 and so on. When file of any individual or institution is created, it should be recorded in register book according to serial number and the same number is written in the file instead of the name. For quick identification of file, index is developed for each file.
In subject filing, files are created according to subjects and arranged in drawer or cabinet according to alphabetic or numeric order. Under this system, preference has been given to the subject of the correspondence or letters. The subjects consist of sale, purchase, salary etc.
In geographical filing, files are arranged in drawer or cabinet according to the geographical distribution of places of persons and institutions. Under this method, name of places are written in file and arranged in drawer either alphabetic or numeric order whichever is suitable for the organization.
In chronological filing, documents are arranged in files according to date and time. When a file, after some time, becomes full another file is used for another period.
Qualities of Good Filing System
Filing system may vary from organizations, all offices develop a filing system according to the nature and size of the organization. But filing must be systematic protective. The followings are the qualities of goods filing system:
- safety and secured
- certainty of reference
- provision of replace
Concept of Indexing
Indexing is the guide or symbol which indicates the exact location of required files in office, chapter in books, books in library, words in dictionary etc. In office procedure, indexing may be defined as the development of an indicator or guide for locating the files and documents. It is the most important tool of office management.
The following are the some common objectives of indexing:
- to ensures easy and prompt location
- to support to developed proper filing
- to maintain secrecy
- to bring smoothness in office works
- to ensure future reference
- to minimize office operation expenses
Importance of Indexing
Indexing is necessary for every organisation where documents are created, received and delivered. It facilitates smooth office performance by locating required files and documents within a short time. It is also known by the time-saving device. The following are the importance of indexing:
- systematic arrangement of files
- save time and effort
- cross reference
- prompt location of files
- develop efficiency
- reduce expenses and maintain secrecy
Types of Indexing
The following are the common types of indexing used in different institution on the basis of convenience:
A. Invisible indexing: The following are some of the invisible indexing:
- Book indexing: Book indexing is a type of book of a certain size. The right edge sheet of papers of the book is cut in such a manner that the letter of alphabets can be seen at a glance. Telephone diary, ledger accounts, cash book etc are the example of book indexing
- Loose-leaf indexing: In loose leaf indexing, indices are fitted in metal hangs or screws which can be easily taken out or replaced by a new one whenever it is needed. Under this system, for name of each person or institution, a separate page is allotted where detail information about concerned person or institution is clearly written
- Card indexing: Card indexing is the card of a certain size where name, address, files number and other information of person or institution is written. The standard size of the index card may be of 3″ x 5″, 4″x8″ and so on. One card is lotted to an individual or institution.
B. Visible indexing: The following are some of the visible indexing:
- Visible card indexing: Under visible card indexing all the cards of certain size are kept in frame or tray in such a way that all the cards can be seen at a glance. Card indexing which is used in bank for the preservation of specimen signatures of the customer is one of the examples of visible card indexing
- Strip card indexing: Under strip card index, strips made up of cardboard paper are fixed in the frame in such a manner that all the strips in the frame can be seen at a glance. Generally, a strip is to be developed for a person or institution and one line entry is made to mention detail about a person.
- Rotary card indexing It is also known as circular or wheel indexing Under rotary card index, a rotating wheel is fitted to a stand and around the circumference of the wheel is used. Rods are slits through which a card can be taken out and a new card can be inserted easily
Qualities of Good Indexing
Indexing is one of important component of office management. Therefore, an effective indexing must have some special features. A good indexing system should fulfill the following qualities:
- simple to understand
- safety and secrecy
- ensures promptness
- appropriate to the office.
- should be flexible
- permit cross reference